Timeline of CRI’s Research


CRI starts its first hepatitis C clinical research trial.


The Quad pill (Stribild) is the first four-drug cocktail, co-formulated into a single-tablet regimen (STR) to be approved by the FDA. It joins Atripla and Complera as a multi-class drug (incorporating drugs from multiple classes) to combat the virus at different steps of its replication process. CRI contributed to research leading to the August 2012 FDA approval of this innovative treatment.

CRI Research Director Dr. Cal Cohen and CRI Board President Jeremy Holman, PhD are featured among HIV experts and world leaders at the 19th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2012) in DC.


The first new HIV/AIDS medication to be approved in three years (a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase called rilpivirine) is approved by the FDA; CRI’s Dr. Cal Cohen is lead investigator for a clinical trial (THRIVE) that leads to the drug’s approval.

A new once-daily HIV medication, Complera, is FDA-approved for treatment and becomes the second complete single-tablet HIV regimen. CRI’s role in the THRIVE trial laid the groundwork for Complera’s approval.

HDAP enrolls over 7,000 people.


Dr. Dan Skiest and the Springfield staff move to Baystate Medical Center and begin conducting HIV research under hospital auspices but remain part of CRI’s network of clinical research sites.

CRI’s Dr. Cal Cohen presents research data from the THRIVE study at the XVIII International AIDS Conference in Vienna.


CRI holds an event honoring all who have helped the organization lead the way in AIDS research for 20 years.

Dr. Cal Cohen presents research data from the FOTO (Five Days On, Two Days Off) Study extension at the 5th International AIDS Society Conference in Cape Town.

CRI’s research network expands to include partnerships with 25 independent research sites around the country.

CRI’s Leadership Council is established to recognize and honor individuals who share a steadfast commitment to CRI’s mission.


CRI is named one of 70 study sites to research the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) Trial, funded by the National Institutes of Health.

CRI’s Dr. Cal Cohen presents research findings for the FOTO Study at the 9th International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection in Glasgow, Scotland.

HDAP enrolls over 5,000 people; 1,467 are enrolled in CHII, HDAP’s Comprehensive Health Insurance Initiative.

CRI’s Research Circle is created to acknowledge those who take a leadership role and support our critical HIV research efforts with a donation of $5000 annually.


CRI opens three expanded access programs between December 2006 and March 2007 for the medications Isentress, Intelence, and Selzentry.

CRI establishes partnerships across the country to create a network of independent clinical trial sites.

CRI’s Director of Research Dr. Cal Cohen (now Scientific Director) and Executive Director Julie Marston receive the 2006 Wainwright Bank Social Justice Award, which recognizes nonprofits that have achieved outstanding success in addressing issues of social justice.


In the summer, CRI opens multiple independent, investigator-initiated trials, including a continuation of the FOTO study with an expanded cohort of patients at sites in Florida, Washington, D.C., and Boston.

CRI and WGBH-TV co-host an event to promote the FRONTLINE documentary series The Age of AIDS.

CRI opens three new expanded access programs for raltegravir (an integrase inhibitor), etravirine TMC125 (a non-nucleoside), and maraviroc (an entry inhibitor).


CRI mourns the loss of Dr. Anne B. Morris, the Director of Research at our Springfield site. Dr. Morris is posthumously awarded the prestigious Red Ribbon Leadership Award at the United Nations on World AIDS Day, December 1.

CRI begins conducting clinical trials for a CCR5 inhibitor (maraviroc), which represents an entirely new class of drugs called entry inhibitors.


Dr. Cal Cohen presents preliminary data on the FOTO study at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok. The study goes on to receive international media attention, including from National Public Radio and The Boston Globe.

CRI launches The 1500 Fund—a sustaining gift program for annual donors of $1500 or more—in honor of its 15th anniversary.

CRI Boston and Springfield become part of an expanded access study of tipranavir, a new protease inhibitor.


CRI completes its first Proof-of-Concept trial and begins studying the novel protease inhibitor (PI) TMC114. When TMC114 (darunavir) is later approved in 2006, it will be the first PI that remains effective even in patients previously resistant to all drugs in the PI class.


CRI begins enrolling patients in the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) trial, which will go on to be the largest HIV/AIDS study in the world of 4,600 expected participants and provide critical data about the disadvantages of long-cycle treatment interruptions based on CD4 count.

CRI starts its investigator-initiated pilot study, FOTO (Five Days On, Two Days Off), which shows that some patients can take their medications only five days a week without reducing the drugs’ effectiveness.


CRI research contributes to the FDA approval of tenofovir, the first nucleotide analog medication.


CRI is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in collaboration with Yale University to participate in the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA), later renamed INSIGHT.

Dr. Cal Cohen presents findings on a new method for phenotypic resistance testing, an improvement over previous efforts to identify viral mutations, at the 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in San Francisco.

CRI implements the Comprehensive Health Insurance Initiative (CHII), an HDAP program that provides financial assistance for health insurance for people who do not have insurance or who can no longer afford to pay for their insurance.


CRI opens a satellite office in Springfield, Massachusetts, a community with one of the nation’s highest rates of HIV prevalence.

CRI’s first HIV medication pill chart is distributed nationally and at international conferences.

CRI holds its first Phase I trial for Fuzeon, an injectible antiviral.


CRI is selected to be one of five sites in the world to begin clinical trials for T-20 (Fuzeon or enfuvirtide), one of a new and powerful class of drugs called fusion inhibitors.

CRI launches a program and evaluation of the Massachusetts HIV Adherence Initiative with the MA Department of Public Health funded at 17 sites to foster new approaches helping patients deal with the complex dosing regimens associated with emerging therapies.


CRI conducts the first study showing that dual protease inhibitors (ritonavir and saquinavir) are effective in treating HIV.


CRI is the world’s largest enroller for the first-ever protease inhibitor clinical trial. The development of this protease inhibitor leads to the advent of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). CRI prioritizes women and has the largest number of female participants on this trial of any site in the world.

CRI studies hydroxyurea in combination with didanosine (ddl); continuing trials show that AZT in combination with ddl or ddC improves health. This is the beginning of combination therapy.

The HDAP program successfully and dramatically changes from covering clients who are on a single HIV drug to covering combination therapy; despite steep increases in program costs, HDAP is able to avoid waiting lists and decreased access to drugs and services.


CRI studies thymopetin, the first potential immune-modulator medication.

FDA approves stavudine (d4T) and lamivudine (3TC), both of which were studied at CRI.


CRI studies the effectiveness of acupuncture for pain management in people with peripheral neuropathy.

CRI launches a Community Advisory Board (CAB).


CRI enrolls over 1,000 HIV clinical trial participants from the New England region in the national Observational Database of people with HIV and AIDS from the New England region. Dr. Cal Cohen is appointed Principle Investigator of this national study that eventually enrolls 17,000 participants.


CRI implements the HIV Drug Assistance Program (HDAP), a program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health that provides financial assistance to help pay for HIV medications.

CRI receives its first amFAR (American Foundation for AIDS Research) grant.


A group of activists, clinicians, and consumers holds a meeting at Boston’s Club Cafe that results in the creation of the Community Research Initiative (CRI) of New England.